Friday, 4 March 2016

Standard Considerations of the Respiratory System

The main function of the respiratory organs is to provide a constant source of oxygen to the tissues and also to remove carbondioxide from them through the lungs. Ultimately this gas exchange occurs between the alveolar air and blended venous blood in the capillaries across the alveolo-capillary membrane.

The alveolocapillary tissue layer has a total area of 75 meter square in an adult. Weather is taken in through the air passages composed of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and the bronchioles. The terminal portions of the air passages- the respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts- sub-serve the function of gas exchange. The part over an expressive cords is termed the upper respiratory tract and the parts below are called the bottom respiratory system.

The trachea which is 11cm long is held permanently open by the presence of C-shaped cartilages on its wall. A number of mucous glands present in the mucous membrane provide nasal mucus which moistens the top and takes part in ciliary action. The trachea divides in to the right and still left bronchi. The bronchi are similar to the trachea in structure. The right main bronchus is 1-2. 5cm long and it is in direct line with the trachea. This fact makes it more vulnerable for obstruction by foreign bodies entering through the trachea. The right main bronchus divides into branches which give you the right upper lobe, middle lobe, and lower lobe. The left main bronchus is longer (5cm) and it forms an angle of 50-100 degrees with the right main bronchus. It divides into two branches which supply the upper and lower lobes. Further division of the lobar bronchi provides rise to segmental bronchi which supply bronchopulmonary sectors.

Bronchopulmonary segments

The bronchopulmonary segment is a wedge of lung tissue offered by each segmental bronchus along with the related branches of the pulmonary artery and vein. The bronchopulmonary segments act as independent units and are separated by fibrous septa.To become more data click here medicos a domicilio.

Divisions of the bronchial tree:

After 8-13 effective divisions the segmental bronchi split up into the most compact bronchi. They continue further as bronchioles. The bronchioles have no cartilage and mucous glands on the surfaces. The bronchioles divide further and the terminal bronchioles divide further and the terminal bronchioles are formed after the fourth department. The terminal bronchioles give rise to respiratory bronchioles. Alveoli start to appear on the walls of the breathing bronchioles. As the respiratory system bronchioles divide further, the number of alveoli as a result of them progressively increases. Regular adult lung contains about 300 million alveoli. Rapid division of the respiratory bronchioles results in tremendous increase in surface area. The terminal portions of the respiratory bronchioles divide into alveolar ducts and sacs. Alveoli sacs. Alveoli are 0. 1-0. 2mm in diameter. Up to the respiratory bronchioles the airways only conduct air passively, but beyond this they, also take part in gaseous exchange. The business offered by a single terminal bronchiole is called an "acinus". An alveolar duct with its distal cable connections is called a "primary lobule". A group of primary lobules separated by connective tissue septa form a "secondary lobule".

Pores of Kohn and Pathways of Lembert:

Pores of Kohn are openings linking alveoli, which allow communication between them and sometimes even between adjacent segments. Canals of Lembert are short marketing and sales communications lines by epithelium which exist between distal bronchioles and some of the neighboring alveoli. These indulge in collateral ventilation between different regions of the chest.

The Lining of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles contains ciliated columnar epithelium that contains goblet cells. The respiratory system bronchioles are lined by non-ciliated cuboidal epithelium. The lining epithelium of the alveoli is flattened and it consists of two types of cells- type I and type II pneumonocytes-arranged on a basement membrane layer. Type I pneumonocytes are numerous and they cover almost all of the inner surface of the alveoli. Gas exchange occurs mainly across these cells. Type 2 pneumonocytes are smaller in number. They contain lamelleated osmiophilic inclusion bodies which are thought to be of lysosomal nature. Surfactant is produced or stored in them.To get additional facts click the link Geriatra a domicilio.

No comments:

Post a Comment